Mei 23, 2013

Grammar On Toefl Test

I will try to explain the structure part in the TOEFL test. After looking for a reference, I will discuss 5 of 20 materials that are often out on the TOEFL test structure.

a.       Basic Sentences Stucture
There was no significant difference between the structure of English sentences with Indonesian, where a sentence is built upon  four main components :

Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)

1.       SUBJECT

·         is the agent of sentence in the active voice
·         is thing/person that performs or responsible for the action of a sentence
·         normally precedes the verb

Example :
1.       I explain how to study English
2.       She listens to my explanation
3.       They didn’t understand that language

2.  VERB
Verb is the action of a sentence

Example :
1.       am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
2.       My brother is very clever
3.       She has gone home (has = auxilary, gone = main verb)
4.       have been waiting here (have been = auxilary, waiting = main verb


Example :

•     Sarijon bought a cake yesterday
What did Sarijon buy yesterday?  –> a cake.

•     He saw Tony at the movie
Whom did he see at the movie? –> Tony

•     I explain pharmacology to my students
What do I explain to my students? –> pharmacology


Example :

•     John bought a book at a book fair
Where did John buy a book? –> at a book fair

•     She is driving very fast
How is she driving? –> very fast

•     I posted my application yesterday
When do I post my application? –> yesterday

b.      Parallel Structure
Parallelism meaning of words used in a network or cluster should have the same grammatical form. When we use words or phrases that are connected by the conjunction in a network, the form should be the same as grammar.
Example :

* Terry likes swimming and to dive. (False – not parallel)
* Terry likes swimming and diving. (True – parallel)
* Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (True – parallel)
* I’m taking history, math, and chemical. (False – Chemical isn’t a noun)
* I’m taking history, math, and chemistry

c.       Comparative Adjectives
When talking about the two objects, we can compare and see the differences as well similarities between the two objects. Maybe it has the same thing on one side and the difference on the other side. To compare the difference between the two objects we use comparative adjectives. Comparison is only using comparative adjectives to compare between two objects only.

There are two ways to create a comparative adjectives:
1. Adding the suffix-er (short adjectives)
2. Adding more prefix (long adjectives)

Addition of a suffix rule for short adjectives:
- Generally only added adjective-er, for example: older, smaller, richer, etc.
- If the ending-e, just add r, for example: later, nicer, etc..
- If the ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant, the final consonant plus, then plus-er, for example: bigger, hotter, etc.
- If the ending-y, then y changed to i then added er, for example: happier, Earlier, busier, heavier, etc.

For long adjectives, the rule only adds more words only on adjectives, for example: expensive to be more expensive, more beautiful to be beautiful, and so on.
Some adjectives have irregular shapes, such as good - better, well (healthy) - better, bad - worse, far - farther / further, etc.

Adjectives with two syllables can use-er or more: quiet - quieter / more quiet, clever - cleverer / more clever, narrow - narrower / more narrow, simple - Simpler / more simple. Comparative adjectives are not only used to compare two different objects, but can also be used to compare the same object that points to itself, and the object is not to say, as one example sentence above: I want to have a more powerful computer.

1.       Adjectives with one syllable

To make the comparative form of an adjective with one syllable, we add-er to the adjective, for example:
• slow - slower
• fast - faster
• tall - taller
• short – shorter

To make a comparison of an adjective with one syllable and ends with the letter-e, we simply add-r. example:
• nice - nicer
• large – larger

If adjectives with one syllable ending with vowels and consonants, then we double the consonant. example:
• - big - bigger
• hot - hotter
• thin – thinner

2.       Adjectives with two syllables

If the adjective has two or more syllables, we add the adjective moresebelum. example:
• This book is more expensive than that book.
• This picture is more beautiful.
However, there are many exceptions to the rule of one / two syllables it.

Some words with 2 syllables have properties similar to words that have 1 syllable. example:
• This is Easier - True
• This is more easy - not really
• This is Simpler - True
• This is more simple – False

And some adjectives can use both comparative form. example:
- Clever - cleverer - more clever: These are all correct
- Quiet - quieter - more quiet: These are all correct.
No exceptions can be learned through the rules, the best way to learn is to learn it one by one.

d.      Conditional Clauses
Conditional (sentence presupposition) explains that an activity contrary to other activities. The most common conditional is Real and Unreal Conditonal Conditonal, sometimes called if-clauses.
Real Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type I) which describes if in accordance with the facts.Unreal Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type II) which describes the supposition that no real or imagined.
There is also a 3rd Conditional often called the Conditional Type III, is used as a regret that happened in the past and zero conditionals, used to express something that is definitely true. Note: If the clause "if" is placed at the beginning of a sentence, we must use the "coma". Conversely, if the clause "if" is behind, then there should be no comma.

Conditional or modality has 3 forms:
1. Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1)
This assumption states that something might happen in the future or now, if the terms / certain conditions are met.

Type 1 Conditional formula:
·         Subject + If + subject + present simple modals (will, can, may, must) V1 (simple form)

example: If have money I will buy a new car

·         Simple If + Subject + ... + subject + present simple-present

example: If he has enough time, John usually walks to school.

·         If + Subject + ... + command simple present form

example: If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me!

2. Unreal Present (Conditional Type 2)
This assumption states something contrary to what exists or happens now.

+ If + subject + subject + simple past modals (would, could, might) V1 (Simple Form)

example:     If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
(I do not have time so I could not go)
If the conditional type 2 can be removed is by using pattern inversion:
Were + subject + Adj / Noun + capital + subject (would, could, might) + V1

example: Were I John I would not forgive you.
(If only I was the john I will not forgive you, in fact I
not john so I forgive you / I'm not John so I forgive you).
He could hug me, if he were here. (She may hug me, if he's here). The fact is: he can not hug me, Because, he is not here.

3. Unreal Past (Conditional Type 3)
This assumption states something contrary to what has happened (past).

Type 3 Conditional formula:
+ If + Subject + Past Perfect ... subject modals (would, could, might) have + V3

1. If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(If only we knew you were there, we had sent a letter to you;
which means that we do not send the letter because we do not know you're there / I did not know that you were there so I did not write you a letter.

e.      Noun Clauses
Noun clause is a clause (ie subject and verb) is used as a noun. Noun clause in the sentence is generally used as a subject and an object sentences.
Noun clause can be preceded by:
• Question word or relative pronoun question either single word or phrase:
Single question word (ie when, how, what, ect.).
Question word + determiner / noun / adjective / adverb.
Question word + infinitive.

So the pattern of the noun clause is:
Question word / conjunction / that + subject + verb + ...

A. Noun clauses beginning with the words Question
How to Address Questions in've discussed about the use of the word good in making the information asked questions and in making embedded questions. Embedded questions are noun clause. In this section are given additional examples to refresh your memory.

1. Single question words.
1. Where she is now is still unknown.
2. When they arrive is still uncertain.
Noun clause can be placed at the beginning of the sentence (as subject) or as an object. If you want to change the position of the subject noun clause object sentence into a sentence, it is usually necessary pronoun or a slight modification of the word.

The above example becomes:
1. It is still unknown where she is now.
2. Do you know when they arrive?
3. Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer. Because the title of movies, noun clause what you did last summer does not need to be rotated position.

a) Clause question preceded by certain words (ie when, Whenever, where) can also function as an adverbial clause.

1. I was reading a book when the phone rang.
2. I went to where I and my ex-girlfriend had been last weekend.
3. Suddenly I get nausea Whenever I see his face. (Nausea = nausea / vomiting willing).

b). Clause is preceded by the words specific question (ie who, Whom, Whose + noun) can also function as an adjective clause. In this case, the question is actually a relative pronoun. Well, do not be too confused by the term. Important that you understand the pattern / structure of the sentence. But, if you are curious, please read the adjective clauses topic.

1. I think you Whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (I guess you (people) who pack Dodi were looking for earlier).
2. Mr. Dodi, who is a teacher, was looking for you at school.
3. Rommy, Whose book was stolen last week, just bought another new book yesterday.

So, how to tell if the noun clause, adverbial clause, or adjective clause? The answer is simple. Noun clause can be replaced by the pronoun it, while the adverbial clause and adjective clause no. Noun clause answers the question what and who / Whom; adverbial clause answering questions when, where, how (including how much, how often, ect), and why. Adjective clause (ie in the form of an adjective clause) describes noun, and relative pronounnya (ie who, that, ect.) In Indonesian means "the".

2. Question words + ever / soever
Except how, at the end of question words can be added ever or soever Whenever = whensoever, whatever = whatsoever, and so on. Meaning here ever or soever the same, ie only / no, stay combined with a question word in front of him. Meanwhile, how + ever be however (ie adverb or also called a transition word meaning yet / even if it is) is not included in this category.

1. We will accept whatever you want us to do. (We will accept / do whatever you want us to do).
2. Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (Melt = melt). Be careful: guy (pronounced gae) = men, while gay (read gei) = fag = fag.
3. She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (He has agreed to take him wherever he goes). Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (in this case to, etc.) Is usually placed at the end of the sentence. She has agreed wherever the man would bring her to.

3. Question nouns + words
Question words + nouns are often used, among others: what time (time), what day (what day), what time (time), what kind (what kind), what type (what type), Whose + nouns (ie Whose car, Whose book, ect.), and so on.

1. I can not remember what day we will take the exam.
2. As long as I am faithful, she does not care what type of family I come from. (Faithful = loyal).
3. Do you know what time it is?
4. I do not know Whose car is parked in front of my house.

4. Question adjectives + words
+ Question words are frequently used adjectives such as: how long (how long / long), how far (how much), how old (how old / Age), ect.

1. Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?
2. I am lost. Could you tell me how far it is from here to the post office?
3. What a jerk. He did not even ask how long I had been waiting for him.

5. Question words + determiners.
Determiners + Question words often used is: how many (how many) and how much (how many). Remember: how many followed by plural nouns, whereas how much followed by uncountable nouns.

1. Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?
2. How much will improve your English skills is determined by how hard you practice.

6. Question words + adverbs.
+ Question words are frequently used adverbs are: how Often (how often), how many times (how many times) ect.

1. Often no matter how I practice, my English still sucks. (No matter how many times I practice, my english is bad). Suck (informal verb) = bad / not good; suck another meaning: suck.
2. I do not want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (Leave school early = absent).

7. Question words + infinitives.
If the question words immediately followed by infinitives, the invinitives implies shouldatau can / could. Note that the subject after question words omitted.

1. She did not know what to do = She did not know what she should do. (He does not know what he should do).
2. Please tell me how to get the train station from here = Please tell me how I can get the train station from here.
3. We have not Decided when to go to the beach = We have not Decided when we should go to the beach.
4. Mary told us where to find her = Marry told us where we could find her.

B. Noun clauses beginning with Whether / if
Whether can be followed by OR / NOT can not; meaning of the sentence is usually the same although the OR / NOT is not mentioned (it depends on the context of the sentence).

1.       Whether I am not sure she is coming or not = I am not sure Whether or not she is coming = I am not sure Whether she is coming. (I'm not sure whether he will come or not).

2.       We can not decide Whether we should go out or stay home. = We can not decide Whether to go or (to) stay home. Note, infinitives can also be used after Whether.

3.       Whether I am not sure I should take economics or law after I graduate from high school. (I'm not sure if I should take some Economic Law after graduating from high school or later).

C. Noun clauses beginning with that / the fact that
Here, that means that, while the fact that means the fact that. Whereas, that in adjective clauses mean that.

1. That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20.
2. It is the fact that the world is round = the fact that the world is round is well known.
3. It was obvious that she was very sick = The fact that she was very sick was obvious.
4. It seems that it is going to rain soon.

Example Problem:
1. The teacher heard who answered the question. (C)

• The first sentence "The teacher heard" is true because the subject teacher and heard verbnya. The second sentence "Who answered the phoned" is also true because who serves as a subject and answered as verbnya. Who at the same time also serves as connetor.
• So the above sentence is correct.

2. I do not understand it went wrong. (I)

• The first sentence "I do not understand" is correct because I do not understand the subject and verb. The second sentence "it went wrong" is wrong because there is no connector at once subject.
• correct sentence should be: I do not understand what went wrong.What subject and also serves as a connector, while his went as a verb.

3. Of the three movies, I can not decide is the best roomates. (C)

• In the first sentence, I can not decide as Subject and as a verb. In the second sentence, roomates as well as the subject and the connector is a verb.

4. She did not remember who in her class. (I)

• In the first sentence, as She did not remember the subject and the verb. Dikalimat second, who as a connector and also subject but no verbnya,
• ayng correct sentence should ................. who was in her class.

5. No one is sure what did it happen in front of the building. (I)

• The first sentence is correct because No one is subject and is is a verb, but the second sentence is wrong because there was and it did. Seharusnay did and it deleted and verb "happen" into the past tense "happened".
• So the correct sentence should be: ....... what happened in front of the building.

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